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20. African American Studies
The most comprehensive resource for local black history is Hanna Geffert’s An Annotated Narrative of the Afro-American Community in Jefferson County, West Virginia (1992). Portions of this work were originally published as part of Charles Hulse’s survey of African American cemeteries in Jefferson County, and it was later expanded and republished separately. The Berkeley County branch of the Carter G. Woodson Historical Society, dedicated to the preservation of black history, is also an important local resource.

Public Records

Public records provide a wealth of information about African Americans who lived in Jefferson County. Chapter 3 of this book lists public records available and their location. To appreciate the full importance of these sources, they should be reviewed in the context of Virginia and West Virginia legislation related to blacks and slavery. Several sources for these laws can be found in the Bibliography under “statutes.”

The West Virginia Regional History Collection includes a section on Slaves and Slavery, Papers, 1797-1829. These files include documents from Berkeley and Jefferson Counties, Virginia, and Frederick County, Maryland, concerning the transport of slaves, manumission, free papers, suits for freedom, and appraisals. (Accession Nos. 2059 and 2078)

Census Records

U.S. Census records are available for Jefferson County, (West) Virginia, from 1810 to 1920. (Max Grove's Reconstructed Census 1774-1810, Berkeley County, Virginia provides useful information on slave holders in this earlier period.) Records taken before the Civil War list slave owners and may describe the age, sex, and occupation of slaves. (The accuracy of these slave counts has not been determined for Jefferson County.) Free blacks are also listed in these documents as well as the racial distinctions “white,” “mulatto,” and“negro.” Census records taken after the Civil War list the race of individuals as well as other vital statistics. Other sources for census information include:

Newman, Debra. Black History: A Guide to Civilian Records in the National Archives. Baltimore: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1984.

United States. Bureau of Census. Negro Population in the United States, 1790-1915. 1918.

United States. Bureau of Census. Negroes in the United States, 1920-1930. 1935.


Virginia Legislative Petitions provide some documentation on slave sales, petitions to allow individual blacks to remain in Jefferson County, and petitions of emancipation.

Tax Records

Tax records often include information about slave ownership. Virginia tax records from 1782-1787 are available as well as the Berkeley County tithables list for 1783, the Berkeley County Poll List of 1788, and the Berkeley County Tax list of 1792. These materials have been microfilmed and are located at the Berkeley County Historical Society and the Martinsburg Public Library. Tax records provide names of slaveholders, numbers of slaves, and information about the property owner.

Vital Statistics (Births, Deaths, and Marriages)

Birth records for Jefferson County are available for 1801 to the present. Death records for Jefferson County are unavailable before 1853. Death records for January 1853 to December 1860 include both blacks and whites, with slaves listed under the surname of their owner. For slaves, these records include first name, sex, age, and cause of death. Death records after the Civil War include information such as age, race, kinship, and cause of death. Marriage records are also available from 1801 to the present. Chapter 10 outlines public documents and other published sources for this type of information.

Deeds and Plats

Records of property ownership sometimes contain fragments of information that can be used to piece together a picture of African American life in Jefferson County. Blacks owning property in the county cannot be easily determined by the deeds themselves, for these documents rarely specify the race of the property owner. However, conditions of sale (e.g., a lot for a school house) may provide information related to blacks’ status in the community. Plats recorded with deeds may also provide some information, showing the location of slave quarters, other outbuildings, and cemeteries. Michael Thompson's Calendar and Index to Recorded Survey Plots in the Jefferson County, West Virginia (Virginia) Courthouse 1801-1901 lists plats recorded
during the 19th century.


Will books for Jefferson, Berkeley, and Frederick Counties provide substantial information about blacks that has not yet been fully utilized. Wills often provide names of slave owners, details of slave ownership, and information on the transfer of blacks as property. Estate inventories serve as another important source of information, for they frequently list blacks by name, age, sex, and assessed value. Goods listed in inventories also provide a context for judging the economic value placed on blacks by slaveowners.

Cemetery Records

Chapter 9 of this work describes sources of cemetery records in detail. Some of the principal sources to be consulted include:

Tombstone Inscriptions. Jefferson County, West Virginia, published in 1981 by the Bee Line Chapter, National Society Daughters of the American Revolution. Their study records tombstone inscriptions from over 120 cemeteries in Jefferson County and is supplemented by records from the court house, churches, and funeral homes. Several black cemeteries are identified. Hugh Voress has published Burials in Jefferson County, West Virginia, 1978-1998 (1998), which serves as a supplement to the D.A.R.’s efforts. Mrs. J.M. Miller’s Old Graveyards of Jefferson County (1934), available at the Charles Town Library, should also be consulted for it contains field notes about unmarked sections of graveyards and other details not found
in the D.A.R. publication. Tombstone inscriptions for many of the cemeteries listed in the D.A.R.’s book were published in several issues of the Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society. The following issues contain relevant information:
vol. 26 (1960): 26-42; vol. 27 (1961): 35-47; vol. 28 (1962): 41-59; vol. 29 (1963): 38-51; vol. 30 (1964): 48-54; vol. 34 (1968): 45-48; vol. 35 (1969): 39-61; vol. 36 (1970): 57-79; vol. 40 (1974): 51-54; vol. 44 (1978): 69-72. The cemeteries reported in each issue are listed in the Bibliography.

African American burial sites were mapped by Dr. Charles Hulse of Shepherd College in his 1990-91 Jefferson County, West Virginia African-American Cemetery Survey. Hulse's survey results and maps are also found in Explorer. Hulse used predictive modeling to estimate the locations of slave burials when more specific information did not exist.

Discrepancies between death records and tombstone inscriptions suggest that many graveyards have never been recorded and that unmarked sites probably exist throughout the county. West Virginia legislation contains strict guidelines that come into play when unmarked graves are discovered and include penalties for abusing these rules. This law may enable researchers to document many unmarked graveyards that are uncovered in during property development.

Church Records

Church records and histories provide another useful source of information about the black population of Jefferson County. Foremost among these sources is Evelyn Taylor’s Historical Digest of Jefferson County, West Virginia's African American Congregations, 1864-1994: With Selected Churches in Neighboring Berkeley County, W.V., Maryland, and Virginia (1994, revised 1999).

Denominational records or records of individual white congregations may provide additional data about blacks. For example, the following sources include information about black churchgoers:

Charles Town Presbyterian Church, Charles Town, West Virginia. Church Records, 1815-1967.

Communicants 1815?-1911, Baptisms (early records do not always give parents, includes “colored”) 1815?-1841, 1865-1912, Marriages (includes “colored”) 1867-1911, and Deaths (includes “colored”) 1859-1911.

Harpers Ferry Presbyterian Church. Harpers Ferry, West Virginia. Church records, 1872-1901.

Marriages (includes one "colored").

Church activities were often reported in local newspapers.


Blacks in ante-bellum Virginia were generally not educated, in part because their owners feared that they would become discontent with their situation or absorb abolitionist notions from Northerners infiltrating the South. Thus the history of formal black education in this area essentially begins with the post Civil War period.

Black education in Jefferson County is described in James Taylor’s History of Black Education in Jefferson County, West Virginia, 1866-1966 (2000). Schools set up for freedmen after the Civil War are described in:

Reilly, Wayne E. (ed.) Sarah Jane Foster, Teacher of the Freedmen: A Diary. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1990.

Strother, David Hunter. "Our Negro Schools." Harper's New Monthly Magazine, 49 (September, 1874): 457-68.

Some public records relating to black public schools still exist and may be found in the following sources:

Board of Education. Minutes, 1889-1913. Originals located in the Board of Education Office.

Reports of Superintendents. County Superintendents of Schools have been required to submit annual reports to the state. Originals are located in the West Virginia Archives, Charleston, WV.

Storer College was the main source for black higher education in Jefferson County. Many documents related to Storer College are available at Harpers Ferry National Historic Park and at Bates College (Maine). Other sources include:

Anthony, Kate J. "Storer College: Our Work at Harper's Ferry – Its History and Purpose," a paper read before a missionary gathering of Free Baptists at Ocean Park, August 15, 1883. August 15, 1883.

Anthony, Kate J. Storer College, Harpers Ferry, W. Va.: Brief Historical Sketch. Boston: Morning Star Publishing House, 1891.

"Anthony Hall Storer College Harpers Ferry Gutted by Fire. " Spirit of Jefferson, October 26, 1927, p. 1, col. 3. Baxter, Norman. History of the Freewill Baptists: A Study in New England Separatism. Rochester, NY: American Baptist Bible Society, 1957. (Storer College was founded by the Freewill Baptists.)

Callahan, James M. Semi-Centennial History of West Virginia. Charleston, WV: Semi-Centennial Commission of West Virginia, 1913.

Catalogue of the Officers and Students of Storer College, Normal Department, located at Harper's Ferry, West Virginia, 1869. Dover, NH: Libbey & Co., printers – Enquirer Office, 1869.

Gordon, Vivian Verdell. “A History of Storer College, Harper’s Ferry, W. Va.,” Journal of Negro Education, 30 (Fall 1961), 445-449.

Hardesty, H.H. Hardesy's Historical and Geographical Encyclopedia, Illustrated. Chicago: H.H. Hardesty, 1883.

Harper's Ferry Messenger. Newspaper published at Harpers Ferry by blacks attached to Storer College. Began June 1882. Revs. B. F. Fox and A. W. Adams were the original editors and Rev. J. W. Dungee the business manager. Management changed in August 1883. In October 1883, the name of the paper was changed to the The Messenger and moved to Shepherdstown, where it was published by Rev. B. F. Fox. The move was possibly caused by paper's criticism of Storer College principal N. B. Brackett.

Lewis, Thomas Narven. Papers, ca. 1898-1934, 80 items. Howard University, Moorland-Spingarn Research Center Library. Includes pamphlets pertaining to Storer College.

Lewis, Virgil A. (comp.) West Virginia. Its History, Natural Resources, Industrial Enterprises and Institutions. [Charleston, WV]: [Printed by the Tribune Printing Co.], [1904].

McClain, Mary Ellen. Storer College: Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, 1865 to 1897. McMinnville, OR: Linfield College, 1974.

Mongin, Alfred. "A College in Secessia: The Early Years of Storer College." West Virginia History, 23. 4 (July 1962): 263-268. (Describes establishment of the college and activities from 1865 to 1915.)

Rice, Otis K. West Virginia: A History. Lexington, KY University of Kentucky, 1985.

Storer College Record. A monthly newspaper published by Storer College, Harpers Ferry. The first issue was printed in January 1883.

Storer College Collection. 1917-1955. Howard University, Moorland-Spingarn Research Center (Washington, DC). About 40 items. Periodicals, brochures, a list of students, and clippings relating to Storer College, the first higher educational institution for Afro-Americans in West Virginia, founded at Harpers Ferry in 1867; together with forms, lists, notes, and correspondence concerning the Washington, DC, chapter of the Storer College Alumni Association and a fund raising campaign.

Storer College Records, 1865-1956. Office files, correspondence, faculty and student records, Veterans Administration records, financial records, clippings, photographs, scrapbooks, building blueprints, and campus plans for the college. Subjects include missionary efforts of the Free Will Baptists to establish schools and missions in the Shenandoah Valley, the school activities of college president Henry J. McDonald, and information on general college operations and activities. West Virginia Regional
History Collection, Accession Nos. 1131, 1168, 1322, and 1471. Microfilm of originals in possession of Mrs. John Newcomer and the National Park Service.

For background information on black education in West Virginia, see:

Anderson, Edyth H. “Legislative Acts Pertaining to the Education of Negroes in West Virginia.” M.Ed. Thesis, University of Cincinnati, 1953.

Mock, Iola L. “The Rise of Negro Elementary Education in West Virginia.” M.Ed. Thesis, University of Cincinnati, 1935.

Phillips, Laura Pinn. “Development of Education for Negroes as Reflected in Legislative Acts and Judicial Decisions,” 1860-1940. M.A. Thesis, University of Chicaho, 1948.

Wood, Edward Grimke. “The Development of Secondary Education for Negroes in West Virginia,” M. Ed. Thesis, University of Cincinnati, 1937.

Woodson, Carter G. Early Negro Education in West Virginia. Institute, WV: Press of West Virginia State College, 1934.


For the most part, local newspapers were published by whites for white readers. The main exception was the Pioneer Press.
Beginning in 1882, The Pioneer Press was published in Martinsburg by J. R. Clifford, an outspoken black newspaperman, lawyer, and Storer College graduate. The first black man licensed to practice law in West Virginia, Clifford traded salvos with the Virginia Free Press and Shepherdstown Independent for years on racial issues and, in particular, on the John Brown raid and the death of Hayward Shepherd. He also freely criticized the Republican Party for its failure to represent blacks. In September 1917, The Pioneer Press ceased publication after 35 years, following charges of postal law violations concerning criticisms by J. R. Clifford of United States involvement in World War One. See: Betty L. Powell Hart, “The Black Press in West Virginia:
A Brief History,” pp. 156-179 and Randy Langhenry, “The Life and Times of J. R. Clifford: A Pioneer Black Journalist,” pp. 180-190. In Joe Trotter and Ancella R. Bickley (eds.), Honoring Our Past: Proceedings of the First Two Conferences on West Virginia Black History, (Charleston, WV: Alliance for the Collection, Preservation, & Dissemination of West Virginia’s Black History), 1991.

Other local black newspapers included:

Independent (Storer College). Published in 1875, this newspaper was devoted to the interests of the "Colored Race."

Storer College Record. A monthly newspaper published by Storer College, Harpers Ferry. The first issue was printed in January 1883.

The major newspapers in Jefferson County (e.g., the Free Press, Spirit of Jefferson, and the Shepherdstown Register) carried an occasional obituary of black residents who were deemed worthy of recognition. Public Notices often conveyed information about the sale of slaves, and humor directed at blacks was a frequent element. Sensational stories about crimes committed by African Americans were standard fare. Advertisements published in these papers provide additional information on the sale of slaves. The Explorer Database and the Bibliography CD contain some references to local blacks in Jefferson County papers. A
systematic, annotated bibliography of local newspaper sources does not currently exist. Several themes related to the public’s perception of blacks in Jefferson County can be traced through newspaper accounts. These themes include:

Attitudes toward John Brown and attempts to establish monuments honoring him in Jefferson County. Heyward Shepherd, the first black man killed in John Brown’s raid, is often used as a symbol by whites of the faithful black servant during the Civil War.

Attitudes toward Storer College activities.

Political contests, particularly those involving local black Republicans.

For a discussion of some of these themes, see:

Andrews, Matthew Page. Heyward Shepherd, Victim of Violence. Address of dedication. Harper's Ferry: Heyward Shepherd Memorial Association, 1931.

Bashinsky, Mrs. L.M., "Hayward Shepherd." Confederate Veteran, 39 (November 1931): 411-414.

Johnson, Mary. "An 'ever present bone of contention': The Heyward Shepherd Memorial." West Virginia History, 56 (1997): 1-26.

Monico, Francis W. “The Negro and the Martinsburg Gazette.” M.A. Thesis, West Virginia University, 1958.

Materials Related to John Brown

Many of the sources published about John Brown contain accounts of the black raiders who accompanied him, and some writers attempt to establish the extent of support for Brown in the black community. These sources are discussed in chapter 12. Materials Related to John Brown, and additional information is available in the Bibliography. Some of the pertiinent sources include:

Anderson, Osborne P. A Voice from Harper's Ferry. A Narrative of Events at Harper's Ferry; with Incidents Prior and Subsequent to Its Capture by Captain Brown and His Men. Boston: Printed for the author, 1861.

Libby, Jean (comp. and ed.). John Brown Mysteries. Missoula, MT: Pictorial Histories Publishing Company, 1999. Includes material by Judith Cephas, Louis S. Diggs, James Fisher, Hannah Geffert, Henry Organ, Erica Phillips, Eva Slezak, and Evelyn M.E. Taylor. Presents “the events of the raid on Harper's Ferry, Virginia, in October 1859, in Afticentric perspective.” Topics include: Marching to a Monument for Freedom. Hannah Geffert and James Fisher; What Was John Brown's Plan? W.E.B. Du Bois,

Frederick Douglass, Martin R. Delany; The Slaves Who Fought With John Brown. Jean Libby; Chronology of the Raid. Jean Libby; A Voice From Harper's Ferry. Osborne Perry Anderson; Two Trains. Jean Libby and Hannah N. Geffert; Harper's Ferry and John Brown. Benjamin A. Matthews, Storer College Class of 1909; In Harm's Way: African Americans in Jefferson County, 1859. Evelyn M. E. Taylor; Historic Cowdensville and Winters Lane. Louis S. Diggs; The Guns of October. Hannah N.
Geffert. Libby, Jean. Black Voices from Harpers Ferry: Osborne Anderson and the John Brown Raid. Palo Alto, California,
1979. Libby, Jean. The Slaves Who Fought With John Brown. Typescript. September 15, 1988. (Argues that local
black support for Brown Raid was much stronger than Southerners wanted to believe.)

The accuracy, scholarship, and viewpoint of the articles cited in the Bibliography cover the spectrum from well researched scholarly works to slap-dash propaganda. In many cases, writers’ reactions to John Brown and his black followers are a litmus test for the authors’ attitudes toward slavery, emancipation, and civil rights.

Secondary Sources

Most histories that deal with Jefferson County include some discussion of slavery and the black population. However, many of these sources essentially represent the viewpoints of white authors toward the black community rather than local blacks’ perceptions of themselves. In some cases, particularly with sources published more than 50 years ago, these histories are primarily valuable for the attitudes expressed rather than specific information contributed. See the Bibliography for extensive lists of these sources. Oral histories taken from local black informants are also listed in the Bibliography. See Chapter 18. Oral History for further information.

The following list provides specific sources for local black history as well as more general sources. The general sources included are not meant to be exhaustive.

Ambler, Charles H. Sectionalism in Virginia from 1776 to 1861. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1910.

Aptheker, Herbert. "The Negro in the Abolitionist Movement." Science and Society (New York), 5 (Winter 1941): 2-23.

Aptheker, Herbert. The Negro in the American Revolution. New York; 1940.

Ballagh, James Curtis. History of Slavery in Virginia. Baltimore: 1902.

Bates, Robert L. "Middleway, a Study in Social History." West Virginia History 11 (October 1949): 5-43.

Bates, Robert L. The Story of Smithfield (Middleway), Jefferson County, West Virginia. Lexington, Virginia: 1958.

Boyd, Herbert (comp.). Autobiography of a People: Three Centuries of African American History Told by Those Who Lived It. New York: Doubleday, 2000/

Brown, William Wells. "John Brown and the Fugitive Slave Law." The Independent (New York), (March 10, 1870).

Butterfield, Roger. "Five Fighters Stood With John Brown." Life (New York), 65 (November 22, 1968): 104-105.

Caldwell, Georgia. "Religion by the Roadside: The Halltown Memorial Chapel." Goldenseal, 22.4 (Winter 1996): 52-56.

Cartmell, T.K. Shenandoah Valley Pioneers and Their Descendants, 1909.

"Civil Rights in Charlestown." Spirit of Jefferson, (May 18, 1875). (Black efforts to integrate entertainment and dining facilities in Charlestown.)

"The Colored Celebration." Spirit of Jefferson, October 26, 1869. (Black celebration in Charles Town.) Daniel, A. Mercer. "The Lovettes of Harpers Ferry, West Virginia." Journal of Negro History, 32 (February 1969): 14-19.

Daniel, A. Mercer. "Quotes from John Brown." Negro History Bulletin (Washington, DC), 30.5 (May 1967): 6-7.

Davis, Betty. "The Halltown Chapel." Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society, 52 (1987): 56-57.

Davis, T.R. "Negro Servitude in the U.S." Journal of Negro History, 8.3 (July 1923): 247-283.

Dozier, George W. Interview. Charles Town, WV. May 19, 1986.

"Emigration to Liberia." Spirit of Jefferson, (May 31, 1853), p. 2. (Notes that the colored race is gradually shedding its unwillingness to move to Liberia.)

Griffith, Cyril E. The African Dream; Martin R. Delany and the Emergence of Pan-African Thought. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1975.

Harris, Andrew, Jr. "Northern Reaction to the John Brown Raid." Negro History Bulletin (Washington, DC), 24 (May 1961): 177-180, 187.

Hillis, Newell Dwight. The Battle of Principles: A Study of the Heroism and Eloquence of the Anti-Slavery Conflict. New York: Negro Universities Press, [1969].

Hening, William Waller. Statutes at Large of Virginia. Richmond: 1812.

Jackameit, William P. "A Short History of Negro Public Higher Education, 1890-1965." West Virginia History, vol. 37.

"Jefferson County Personal Property Tax List of 1800," Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society, 32 (December 1967): 67.

Jencks, Christopher and David Riesman. "The American Negro College." Harvard Educational Review, 37.1 (Winter 1967): 55-56.

Johnson, James Hugo. Race Relations in Virginia and Miscegenation in the South 1776-1860. Amherst: The University of Massachusetts Press, 1970.

Johnson, Jerry M. III. Johnsontown, West Virginia Heritage Year Book., 1987.

Love, Rose Leary. "The Five Brave Negroes With John Brown." Negro History Bulletin (Washington, DC), 27 (April 1964): 164-169.

McColley, Robert. Slavery and Jeffersonian Virginia. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press, 1964.

McGregor, James C. The Disruption of Virginia. New York: The MacMillan Company, 1922.

Morris, Robert C. Reading, ‘Riting, and Reconstruction: The Education of Freedmen in the South, 1861-1870. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, c 1981. Includes bibliography, pp. 305-330.

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. (NAACP). Papers. Library of Congress.

"Negro Artists. Their Works Win Top U.S. Honors." Life (New York), (July 22, 1946), pp. 62-64. (Review of distinguished works by black artists. Included in full color is Horace Pippin's "John Brown Going to His Hanging.")

Newell, Dwight. The Battle of Principles: A Study of the Heroism and Eloquence of the Anti-Slavery Conflict. New York: Negro Universities Press, 1969.

Perry, Thornton T., Jr. "Martin R. Delany. Charles Town's Most Famous Negro." Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society 16 (1950): 41-45.

Potter, David M. "John Brown and the Paradox of Leadership among American Negroes." in The South and the Sectional Conflict. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 1968.

Quarles, Benjamin. Blacks on John Brown. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1974.

Quarles, Benjamin. The Negro in the American Revolution. New York: Norton, 1973.

Rollin, Frank A. (Pseud. for Frances Whipper.) Life and Public Services of Martin R. Delany; Sub-Assistant Commissioner Bureau Relief of Refugees, Freedmen, and of Abandoned Lands, and Late Major 104th U.S. Colored Troops. Boston: Lee and Shepard, 1883.

Russell, John H. The Free Negro in Virginia 1619-1865. Baltimore: 1913.

Sheeler, John R. "John Brown: A Century Later." Negro History Bulletin (Washington, DC), 24 (October 1960): 7-10, 15.

Sheeler, John R. “The Negro in West Virginia before 1900.” Ph.D. Dissertation, West Virginia University, 1954.

Siebert, Wilbur H. The Underground Railroad from Slavery to Freedom. New York: Arno Press and the New York Times, 1968.

Skidmore, Robert. "A Social History of the Eastern Panhandle Counties of West Virginia to 1810", M.A. Thesis. Morgantown, W. Va.: West Virginia University, 1953.

Smith, John David (comp.). Black Slavery in America: An Interdisciplinary Bibliography 1865-1980. 2 vols. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1982.

Stealey, John E. III. "Freedmen's Bureau in West Virginia." West Virginia History, 39 (January and April 1978): 99-142.

Stealey, John E. III. "Reports of Freedmen's Bureau Operations in West Virginia: Agents in the Eastern Panhandle." West Virginia History, 42 (Fall 1980 - Winter 1981): 94-129.

Stealey, John E. III. "Reports of Freedmen's Bureau District Officers on Tours and Surveys in West Virginia." West Virginia History, 43 (Winter 1982): 145-155.

Sterling, Dorothy. The Making of an Afro-American; Martin Robison Delany 1812 - 1855. New York: Doubleday and Co., 1971.

Still, William. The Underground Railroad. New York: Arno Press and the New York, 1968.

Talbott, Forrest, "Some Legislative and Legal Aspects of the Negro Question in West Virginia During the Civil War and Reconstruction," West Virginia History, 24.1 (October, 1962).

Taylor, Alrutheus. "Making West Virginia a Free State." The Journal of Negro History, 6.2 (April, 1921): 131-173.

Taylor, James L. Africans-In-America of the Lower Shenandoah Valley: 1700-1900. James L. Taylor, 1999. Contains biographical sketches of local African Americans, including: Beck; Menta, Joseph, and Adam; Pati Delany; Samuel Delany; “Aunt” Sukey; John Jackson; George Slow; George Johnson; George Washington: Joe Hagan and the Skilled Blacks of Harpers Ferry; Thomas Laws; George William Cook; Josiah T. Walls; J.M. Hill; Hamilton Hatter; Rev. B.F. Fox; Rev. John William Dungee; Littleton Page; James Roper; Philip Jackson; Joseph Richard Winters; Martin Robison Delany; Archilles Dixon; Bishop
Matthew W. Clair, Jr.; Lucy Diggs Slow; Roscoe Dungee; Jimmy Winkfield; John Clifford; Osborne P. Anderson; Dangerfield Newby; Lewis Leary; John Copeland; and Shields Green. Theriault, William D. History of Eastern Jefferson County, West Virginia. Bakerton, WV: The Jefferson County

Oral and Visual History Association, Inc., 1988. (Describes the black communities at Bakerton and Engle.)

Trotter, Joe William and Ancella R. Bickley (eds.). Honoring Our Past: Proceedings of the First Two Conferences on West Virginia Black History. Charleston, WV: Alliance for the Collection, Preservation, & Dissemination of West Virginia’s Black History, 1991. Contains several articles on local black history, including: Joe W. Trotter, “African Americans in West Virginia: A Brief Overview,” pp. 2-24; Barbarn Rasmussen, “Neo- Abolitionistys and the Founding of Storer College, pp. 95-111; Betty L. Powell Hart, “The Black Press in West Virginia: A Brief History,” pp. 156-179; Randy Langhenry, “The Life and Times of J. R.
Clifford: A Pioneer Black Journalist,” pp. 180-190; and R. Charles Byers, “Black High Schools in West Virginia,” pp. 242-247.
Ullman, Victor. Martin R. Delany: The Beginnings of Black Nationalism. Boston: Beacon Press, 1971.

[Wesley, Charles H.] "John Brown - Fanatic or Precursor of Freedom." Negro History Bulletin (Washington, DC), 30.5 (May 1967): 4-5.

West Virginia. Report of Bureau of Negro Welfare and Statistics of the State of West Virginia 1923 - 1924.

Williams, George W. History of the Negro Race in America. New York, 1883.

Wynne, Anne Marie. “Reconstruction and the Negro in West Virginia.” M.A. Thesis, University of Maryland, 1972.

Wood, Edward Grimke. “The Development of Secondary Education for Negroes in West Virginia,” M. Ed. Thesis, University of Cincinnati, 1937.

Woodson, Carter G. Early Negro Education in West Virginia. Institute, WV: Press of West Virginia State College, 1934.

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