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William D. Theriault, Ph.D.
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19. The Arts
A history of the arts and humanities in Jefferson County has yet to be written. This chapter focuses on artists, writers, historians, biographers, etc., who used Jefferson County as their subject whether they lived here or not. General sources are listed first and are followed by an alphabetical listing of relevant authors and subjects.

General Sources


Census records for Jefferson County are useful for identifying individual artists (often listed as “painter”). The following works provide a partial list of Jefferson County artists or those who dealt with local subjects: Ambler, H. K. "A Partial List of Jefferson Countians Owning Portraits by Unidentified Painters." Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society, 6 (1940): 35-39.
"A Partial List of Artists Who Worked in Jefferson County or Painted Jefferson Countians or Whose Paintings Are Owned in the County." Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society, 6 (December, 1940): 24-33.

Willis, Patty. "Jefferson County Portraits and Portrait Painters." Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society, 6 (1940): 21-22.

The New York Historical Society's Dictionary of Artists in America by George C. Groce and David H. Wallace (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1957) is an important general source for identifying local talent.


There is no study that deals in depth with dance in Jefferson County either as a performing art or as a social/recreational activity. Numerous references to dances appear in local papers, mostly in conjunction with social events. Newspaper abstracts presented in the Explorer Jefferson County Database would be a good place to begin research. Advertisements in the local newspapers for dancing classes should also be examined.

Programs sponsored by Shepherd College and Storer College should be investigated, both in terms of curricula and social events.


Charles Town, Harpers Ferry, and Shepherdstown had halls where musical and dramatic productions were staged. Dramatic societies were also formed in these towns. Numerous amateur dramatic productions were staged and can best be located through the newspaper abstracts in the Explorer Database. Temperance-related dramas were common, some being held at Jonadab Hall in Harpers Ferry. Both Shepherd College and Storer College included drama as part of their curriculum. The Opera House in Charles Town, a National Register site, has hosted numerous dramatic productions. Hilltop House served as a site for productions of the“Hilltop Players” in the 1950s under the sponsorship of hotel owner Dixie Kilham. Local newspapers and
college yearbooks and records should yield some information.

Most of the plays written about Jefferson County focus on John Brown. The best known local playwright was Julia Davis. Her play The Anvil focused on the trial of John Brown. It has been staged several times in Charles Town, once using the descendants of the local people who were involved in the 1859 raid and trial.


Davis, Julia. The Anvil: A Two-Act Drama based on the Trial of John Brown. Copyright, as an unpublished work, 1962, by Julia Davis. Evanston, Illinois: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1963.

Other plays and dramatic productions about John Brown include:

Benet, Stephen Vincent. John Brown's Body. This poem was staged at the Yale Drama School and Off-Broadway, under the direction of Curtis Canfield. Music by Fenno Heath. [New York]: Dramatists Play Service, [1961].

Gow, Ronald. Gallows Glorious, a Play in Three Acts. London: V. Gollancz, Ltd., 1933. Produced in London under the title “Gallows Glorious” and in American under “John Brown.”

“John Brown’s Raid.” A one-hour NBC drama, shot for showing on television. James Mason starred in the title role as John Brown. It was first shown on October 24, 1960. See "TV at Harpers Ferry." Newsweek (New York), (October 17, 1960), 74.

Price, William Thompson. Old John Brown, of Harper's Ferry; a Drama in Five Acts. [New York?:] [1895]. A play the deals with the John Brown raid at Harpers Ferry.

Stavis, Barry. Harpers Ferry: A Play about John Brown. New York: A.S. Barnes and Co., 1960.


Two local writers produced numerous essays on local and national topics for the Shepherdstown Register in the first half of this century: Henry L. Snyder, owner of the Register drafted numerous essays on Shepherdstown’s past. Rev. John O. Knott, a Methodist minister, also contributed material on a regular basis on a variety of topics.

John Brown was the favorite subject of many essayists in the late 19th century. Most of the Northern literati, such as Henry David Thoreau, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and William Dean Howells contributed essays that helped shape Brown’s evolving image. See Chapter 12 and the Bibliography for other writers about John Brown.

Literature: Prose and Verse

No comprehensive survey of Jefferson County literature has been produced. For collections and surveys that include some Jefferson County writers, see:

Comstock, James F. West Virginia Encyclopedia.

Stutler, Boyd B. “Jefferson County, Cradle of Literature,” Spirit of Jefferson, April 15, 1931.

Turner, Ella May. Stories and Verse of West Virginia. Hagerstown, 1923.

A large amount of poetry has been written about John Brown, some of it by nationally recognized poets such as John Greenleaf Whittier, James Whitcomb Riley, Ellery Channing, William Dean Howells, and Herman Melville. Several poems perpetuate the myth that Brown stooped to kiss a black child on the way to the gallows. Some of the studies and major collections of John Brown poetry include:

Benet, Stephen Vincent. John Brown’s Body (1928). An epic poem dealing with John Brown’s raid and its effects on the nation.
Crane, Beatrice. John Brown in American Poetry, Song, and Oratory. Master's Thesis, George Peabody College for Teachers, Nashville, TN, 1931.

Ruchames, Louis (ed.) A John Brown Reader. The Story of John Brown in His Own Words, in the Words of Those Who Knew Him and in the Poetry and Prose of the Literary Heritage. London, New York: Abelard-Schuman, 1959.

Redpath, James. Echoes of Harper's Ferry. Boston: Thayer and Eldridge, 1860.

Local poets include:

Bedinger, Daniel. "The Cossack Celebration." (Poem) , 1814.

Briscoe, W.D. The West Virginia Historical Magazine (Vol. 3, October 1903) published a graceful poem by W.D. Briscoe called "Evett's Run" (sic) to which is also appended an historical note. The poem opens with his quatrain: In mossy pool the Heron croaks, / Near-by old Norbome's wall; / I see once more the sturdy oaks, / That wave 'round Antler Hall. The poem calls the church "Norborne," but in his explanatory essay Mr. Briscoe says, "The early history of the 'Old Church' or 'St. George's Chapel' of Norborne Parish, so far as we know, is clothed in mystery."

Dandridge, Danske Bedinger. (1854-1914) The daughter of Henry Bedinger, the U.S. minister to Denmark in the 1850's. She married A.S. Dandridge. She published many of her poems in national magazines including The Century, Harpers, and the New York Independent. Collections of her poems include Joy and Other Poems (1888) and Rose Brake and Other Poems (1890). She also wrote histories and biographies, including:

American Prisoners of the Revolution (1911), George Michael Bedinger, a Kentucky Pioneer (1909), and Historic Shepherdstown (1910). Some of her papers can be found at the West Virginia Archives (1887-1901, 20 items, Ms80-133).

The West Virginia Regional History Collection includes some letters (1869-1913, Accession No. 978) to Dandridge; the letters are mainly from family members and from magazine editors. Many of her papers are located at Duke University. (See Chapter 2.)

Horner, Warren B. Lichen; Selected Published and Unpublished Verse. Shepherdstown, WV: The Author, [1935]. Old Charles Town Library. Many of the poems appear to have been written while Horner was a student at Shepherd College. Titles include: "June in Shepherdstown" and "Seniors, Shepherd College, 1934."

Lucas, Daniel Bedinger (1836-1909). He became a well known as poet after he composed "The Land Where We Were Dreaming" in 1865, an elegiac ode to Virginia and the Shenandoah Valley. Often referred to during his life time as the "Poet of the Shenandoah," he published several volumes of poetry, including:

The Maid of Northumberland. New York: Putnam's, 1879.

The Land Where We Were Dreaming, and Other Poems of Daniel Bedinger Lucas. Boston: R. G. Badger, 1913.

Ballads and Madrigals. New York: Pollard & Moss, 1884.

Lucas was the author of a biography of his friend John Yates Beall and was co-editor of Southern Metropolis in 1869-70, a weekly literary journal published in Baltimore. Many of his papers have been deposited at Virginia Polytechnic Institute (see Chapter 2).

Lucas, Virginia Bedinger (1838-1865). She was the sister of Daniel Bedinger Lucas and was called the"Valley's Pastoral Poet." After she died at age 27, her brother published entitled The Wreath of Eglantine (1869), which included her verse and some of his own.

Lucas, Virginia (1873-1929). The only child of Daniel B. Lucas, Virginia was known primarily as a poet. Her anthology June (1927), closes with a poem entitled "Rion Hall in Love Time." She also published Dream Circles and Other Sonnets (1927). Her short story "The Captain" gained her national attention. Virginia Lucas wrote a biographical sketch of her father that was published just before her death in 1929.


Charles Town, Harpers Ferry, and Shepherdstown had their own halls, and later movie houses. A great deal of information on this topic is available through the newspapers (see the Explorer Database).

Life in Charles Town in 1941 was combined with aerial glimpses of Jefferson County in “See Yourselves in the Movies,” a film produced by the Charles Town Lions Club under the direction of Tim Sinn. See:

Theriault, William D. "The Way We Were: Jefferson County in 1941," Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life, Summer 1991.

The history of thoroughbred racing in Jefferson County was the subject of “They Passed This Way,” a film directed by Jim Surkamp and produced by Bill Theriault through The Jefferson County Oral & Visual History Association in 1991. See:

Theriault, William D. "For Love and Money: Jefferson County Horse Racing," Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life, Spring 1989.

Archeological investigations at a Native American village (ca. 1250 ad) near Bakerton were documented in“Glen Haven: A Jefferson County Indian Village.” Edited by Ellis McDowell-Louden and produced by The Jefferson County Oral and Visual History Association and SUNY Binghamton in 1990. See:

McDowell-Louden, Ellis E. and Gary Louden. "Glen Haven Site, 46- JF-5: 1983 Interim Report," Proceedings of the 1983 Middle Atlantic Archaeological Conference, Rehoboth Beach, Delaware, pp. 28-35.

McDowell-Louden, Ellis E. "The Glen Haven Site: An Interim Report, 1980," West Virginia Archeologist, no. 32 (Fall, 1981), pp. 49-50.

McDowell-Loudan, Ellis E. "Methodology in Archaeology: What went wrong at Glen Haven," Curator (1981), pp. 253-260.

McDowell, Ellis. Preliminary report on the Glen Haven Site, West Virginia. Eastern States Archaeological Federation Bulletin No. 32. 1972.

Several films about Harpers Ferry have been produced by the National Park Service. These resources may be ordered from the Harpers Ferry Park Bookstore or via their website (www.nps.gov.hafe/). See:

The John Brown Raid Videopack, including To Do Battle In The Land – a 27-minute video documenting John Brown's 1859 attempt to end slavery in the South by attacking the U.S. Armory at Harpers Ferry.

John Brown's Raid – a 76-page National Park Service Handbook with historical photos and detailed account of the insurrection and subsequent trial. Study Guide – which compliments the video and handbook and helps teachers prepare students to understand John Brown's Raid through a series of thematic lessons and activities. It is also useful as a pre-visit introduction to the park.

Back to Harpers Ferry – National Park Service video, 16 minutes. Harpers Ferry is a place that chronicles the passage of time and echoes the lives of women and men. This video captures the essence of this special river town and recalls the remarkable people who have contributed to the town's indomitable spirit. VHS.

The Floods of '96 at Harpers Ferry, West Virginia – National Park Service video, 7 minutes. Dramatic footage of the record floods of January and September 1996 in Lower Town Harpers Ferry. Includes excerpts from local and national media coverage.
James T. Surkamp has produced a series of brief programs about Jefferson County history which have been broadcast by GS Communications of Frederick, MD. Programs include:

"Tape 1: Pre Colonial Period." 1995. Includes: Prehistory, pt. 1 (5:30); Prehistory, pt. 2 (4:00); Prehistory, pt. 3 (3:00); John Lederer's Blazed Trail to the Shenandoah Valley (7:00); and Native Americans (6:20)."

Tape 2: Colonial Period," 1995. Includes: Scotch Irish Voyage to America, pt. 1 (3:10); Scotch Irish Voyage to America, pt. 2 (4:20); Young Washington's Surveying Diary, 1748, pt. 1 (4:20); Young Washington's Surveying Diary, 1748, pt. 2 (6:30); Bee Line March: The Birth of the U.S. Army, pt. 1 (4:30); Bee Line March: The Birth of the U.S. Army, pt. 2 (6:00); James Rumsey: Co-Inventor of the Steamboat, pt. 1(5:00); James Rumsey: Co-Inventor of the Steamboat, pt. 2 (8:21); Wizard's Clip: A Famous True Ghost Story, pt. 1 (5:22); Wizard's Clip: A Famous True Ghost Story, pt. 2 (4:35); and Wizard's Clip: A Famous True Ghost Story, pt. 3 (6:25).

"Tape 3: Civil War Era No. 1." 1996. Includes: Pack Horse Ford Massacre: Sept. 20, 1862 (4:20); Fountain Rock Burning (4:46); John Wesley Culp and Gettysburg (6:13); Robert E. Lee and the fallen John A. Washington (5:39); The Money Tree and the Stolen Payroll (6:21); Bedford's Burning: Its Owner Writes General Hunter (6:18); J.E.B. Stuart's Silver Spurs, pt. 1 (5:34); J.E.B. Stuart's Silver Spurs, pt. 2 (5:40); Stonewall Scams the B&O Railroad, 1861 (3:48); Gen. Sheridan Despoils the
Shenandoah Valley, pt. 1 (4:45); and Gen. Sheridan Despoils the Shenandoah Valley, pt. 2 (5:06).

"Tape 4: Civil War Era No. 2." 1996. Includes: A Visit to the Masonic Cave, 1864 (5:22); William L. Reinhart: A Common Soldier's Story (6:11); George Caton: A Common Soldier's Story (7:03); Gen. Mosby's Daring Greenback Raid, 1864 (6:46); and Civil War Aftermath: Henrietta Lee's Lost Home (5:28).

"Tape 5: Crafts, Inventions, Traditions." 1997. Includes: Pre Christmas Festivity: West Virginia, 1920's (4:53); Holiday History: The Great Sled Ride (2:44); A Coppersmith's Tale: The Shindlers, pt. 1 (3:49); A Coppersmith's Tale: The Shindlers, pt. 2 (5:34); A German May Day Celebration in the 1850's (4:36); The Circus is Coming! An 1850's Memory (7:17); The History of Apple Growing, pt. 1 (5:09); The History of Apple Growing, pt. 2 (6:33); A History of a County Fair 1750 to 1997, pt. 1 (5:04); and A History of a County Fair 1750 to 1997, pt. 2 (5:35).

"Tape 6: Crafts, Inventions, Traditions." 1997. Includes: The History of Haying: 1760 to 1997 (7:23); Making Apple Cider: Past and Present (4:47); Blast Iron Furnaces in the 18th Century (7:28); Hogs: A Central Figure in Our History (10:14); The History of Whiskey, pt. 1 (5:55); The History of Whiskey, pt. 2 (6:20); The History of a 200 Year Old Mill (4:59); and The History of Milling, pt. 2 (3:58).

"Tape 7: Harper's Ferry History." 1997. Includes: Thomas Jefferson's Rhapsody (2:06); The John Brown Smooch That Didn't Happen (7:18); Harper's Ferry Raid: Osborn Anderson's Escape, pt. 1 (5:25); Harper's Ferry Raid: Osborn Anderson's Escape, pt. 2 (5:57); Harper's Ferry Flood, 1870, pt. 1 (4:00); Harper's Ferry Flood, 1870, pt. 2 (5:33); NAACP Birthplace: The Second Niagara Convention, pt. 1 (5:48); and NAACP Birthplace: The Second Niagara Convention, pt. 2 (5:09).

"Tape 8: Nature in Shenandoah Valley and WVA." 1997. Includes: Shenandoah River: Its History, pt. 1 (5:40); Shenandoah River: Its History, pt. 2 (4:38); Black Water Chronicle: Camping in the 1850's pt. 1(4:52); Black Water Chronicle: Camping in the 1850's pt. 2(2:50); Black Water Chronicle: Camping in the 1850's pt. 3(4:57); Black Water Chronicle: Camping in the 1850's pt. 4(5:37); Shannondale Springs in the mid 1800's, pt. 1 (4:40); Shannondale Springs in the mid 1800's, pt. 2 (4:24); and Ben Schley: Fishing the Potomac (4:30).

"Tape 9: Crafts, Inventions, and Traditions No. 2." 1998. Includes: James Rumsey: Steamboat Co Inventor, pt. 1 (5:00); James Rumsey: Steamboat Co Inventor, pt. 2 (8:21); James Rumsey: Steamboat Co Inventor, pt. 3 (6:44); and Charles Town Races: The History of Horses, pt. 1 (3:30).

"Tape 10: Shepherd College History." 1998. Includes: Helen Hunter's Letters Home, 1914, pt. 1 (4:36); and Helen Hunter's Letters Home, 1914, pt. 2 (7:41).

"Tape 11: Charles Town, WV History." 1998. Includes: The John Brown Courthouse History, pt. 1 (6:02); The John Brown Courthouse History, pt. 2 (7:41); The Charles Town "Cave Under the City" (5:19); Charles Town, WV, "Folks in '41" (3:17); Charles Town, WV Names of People, 1941 (7:26); Charles Town Races: The History of Horses, pt. 1 (3:30); Charles Town, WV: 1959 (2:18); Charles Town WV Fire Companies in Action, 1941 (3:33); Charles Town, WV Names of Residents, 1941 (2:37);
Charles Town, WV: Perfection Garment Ladies, pt. 1 (3:51); and Charles Town, WV: Perfection Garment Ladies, pt. 2 (5:16).

"Tape 12: Shepherdstown, WV in the 20th Century." 1998. Includes: Shepherdstown, September, 1921, pt. 1 (6:55); Sarnia: A Modern, Factual Ghost Story, pt. 1 (4:31); and Sarnia: A Modern, Factual Ghost Story, pt. 2 (5:21).

"Tape 13: Jefferson County in the 20th Century." 1998. Includes: The Depression Drought, 1930, pt. 1 (6:18); The Depression Drought, 1930, pt. 2 (5:12); Patsy Cline; Hack Wilson; Children's Haven; and History of Ice Cream.

"Tape 14: Jefferson County History 1877 to 1900." Includes: The Birth of Rural Free Delivery, 1896 (6:32); and Jefferson County Agriculture, 1890's (5:41).

"Tape 15: Martin Robison Delany." 1998. Includes: Martin Delany, segment 1 (3:18); Martin Delany, segment 2 (6:54); Martin Delany, segment 3 (3:12); Martin Delany, segment 4 (3:00); Martin Delany, segment 5 (5:10); and Martin Delany, segment 6 (5:10). Video cassettes on Jefferson County History, including John Wesley Culp, Benjamin Schley, James Rumsey, John Augustine Washington, William L. Reinhart, Shepherd College, Smithfield, and the Civil War.


Musical activities in Jefferson County have not been systematically studied, and the best reference source is local newspapers. (Many issues are abstracted in the Explorer Database.) Most towns in the county had sites that were used for musical performances and related activities: in Charles Town, Charles Washington Hall and the New Opera House; in Shepherdstown, the Opera House, as well as events hosted by Shepherd College; and in Harper’s Ferry at Jonadab Hall and Storer College’s Anthony Hall. Local private schools, such as the Stephenson Female Seminary and Powhatan College had vocal and instrumental music programs.

(School and college yearbooks provide some information.)

Numerous bands sprang up in the county in the 19th century, several of them surviving into the early part of this century. Some of the local bands and organizations include: The Charlestown Musical Association, Charlestown Cornet Band, Silver Cornet Band, Harpers Ferry Colored Band, Powhatan and City Bands, and Henson’s Klean Kut and Klassy Band.

Authors and Subjects Related to Jefferson County

The following resources provide information on some prominent Jefferson County individuals.

Aglionby, Charles (1807 - 1891). Born Charles Yates. Diaries, March 6, 1861 to January 1, 1866, and 1875 to 1878. In the possession of Francis Aglionby, London, England. Diaries and accounts kept at Mount Pleasant, Jefferson County. Aglionby kept a full record of the weather, his farming, family and social activities, military operations in the area, and rumors about the progress of the war. See:

Aglionby, Francis. "Charles Aglionby of Mount Pleasant and the Years 1861 to 1985 [sic][1865]." Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society, 52 (1987): 15-20.

Ambler, Anne Madison Willis Ambler. Diary in possession of her granddaughter, Anne Madison Ambler Baylor (Mrs. Robert Garnet Baylor). Portions of the diary (1862) written at Rock Hall near Summit Point were printed in the Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society. See:

"Diary of Anne Madison Willis Ambler." Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society, 37 (1971): 20-33.

Kenamond, A.D. "The Hite Families of Jefferson County,” Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society, 21 (1965): 49-53.

Anonymous. An account of activity in Shepherdstown, 1862-1865, from the diary of a Southern sympathizer. WVU Archives. 146. Civil War. Miscellaneous papers, 1859-1937.

Beall, John Yates. Beall was tried and executed as a Confederate spy. His memoirs, compiled by his friend Daniel Bedinger Lucas, includes his diary. See:

Beall, John Yates. Memoir of John Yates Beall: His Life; Trial; Correspondence; Diary; and Private Manuscripts Found Among His Papers. Montreal: Printed by John Lovell, 1865.

Mayo, Lida. "John Yates Beall: The Southern John Brown." Virginia Cavalcade, 14.4 (Spring 1965): 4-9. Bishop, John Peale. (1891-1944) A Charles Town native, Bishop won international fame as a poet, critic, novelist, and writer of short stories. His Many Thousands Gone (New York: C. Scribner"s Sons, 1931) was a collection of short stories set in "Mordington" (Charles Town) during and after the Civil War. Stories include "Many Thousands Gone," "The Cellar," "Young Death and Desire," "The Corpse in the Cellar," and"If Only." Bishop’s novel, Act of Darkness (New York, C. Scribner's sons, 1935), is also set in "Mordington" (Charles Town) and deals with a rape, the trial, and a boy’s loss of innocence. Based loosely on the trial of
Graham Wilson for the rape of Virginia Lucas, the book caused a furor in Jefferson County. See: Spindler, Elizabeth Carroll. John Peale Bishop: A Biography. Morgantown: WV University Library, 1980.

Blackford diaries. Diaries, 1836-38, of John Blackford, and 1838-45, of Franklin Blackford. They contain weather observations, details of farm and ferry operations, family and social activities of the Blackford and Knode families and friends, and activities of slaves (two of whom ran the ferry) and hired workers. John Blackford had extensive business and social dealings with persons in Boonsboro, Hagerstown, and Sharpsburg, MD, and Shepherdstown, VA . Materials are in the T.T. Perry Collection of the Virginia Historical Society. MsslB5645c.

Bondi, August M. Companion of John Brown in Kansas.

Litvin, Martin. The Journey: The First Full-length Documented Biography of the American-Jewish Freedom Fighter Who Rode with John Brown in Kansas. Galesburg, IL: Galesburg Historical Society, 1981. Deals with August M.Bondi (August Mendel), 1833-1907.

Boteler, Alexander R. (1815-1892). Artist, writer, politician.

Adams, Charles S. Alexander Robinson Boteler: Wheel Horse of Whiggery, Stonewall's Courier. Shepherdstown, WV: By the Author, 1998. Based on a 1936 master's thesis by Emily Timberlake. It includes a piece on Timberlake and a discussion of the Whig party by her son John Watterson. Appendixes include Alexander Boteler's account of the John Brown Raid, Stonewall Jackson's 1862 campaign in the Shenandoah Valley, Boteler's conversation with President-elect Lincoln on the eve of the inauguration, Boteler's unfinished autobiography, letters from Henry Kyd Douglass to Helen Boteler, Alexander's
daughter, Helen Boteler's obituary, an account of Turner Ashby, pictures of Boteler, some of his drawings, and Boteler's sketch of John Brown just after his capture.

Boteler, Alexander R. Diary. University Library.

"Boteler, Alexander Robinson." Dictionary of American Biography, edited by Allen Johnson. New York: C. Scribner's Sons, 1928, vol. 1, pp. 467-468.

Pendleton, Helen B. "Alexander Robinson Boteler, A Nineteenth Century Romantic." Shepherdstown Register, December 14, 1933 through February 22, 1934. A serialized biography of Alexander R. Boteler.

Stutler, Boyd B. "Colonel Alexander Boteler's Sketches of John Brown." Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society, 25 (December 1959), 32-38.

Warner, Ezra J. and W. Buck Yearns. Biographical Register of the Confederate Congress. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1975. Includes biography of Alexander Boteler. Information on members's positions on major issues, chief interests, reasons for leaving Congress. Botts, John Minor. Politician.

"John Minor Botts" Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography. Wilson, James G. and John Fiske. (eds.) New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1887-1889. 1: 325-26

Boyden, James Woodbury. See:

Boyden, James Woodberry. Diary, Commonplace Book and Letter Book of James Woodberry Boyden, of Beverly, Essex County, Mass., 1837-1838, Kept in Charles Town, Virginia. Reprinted with notes in Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society, 37 (1966): 6-80.

Breeden, Robert L. Shannandale Conspiracy. [Berkeley Springs, WV: The author, 1997. Fiction.

Brown, John (1821-1895). Diaries 1858 and 1861. Farmer, and soldier, son of John Brown, the abolitionist. Ohio Historical Society.

Brown, John (1800-1859). Autobiography. Brown wrote a brief history of his early years as instruction for his children. See Chapter 12. Materials Related to John Brown and the Bibliography for additional writings by or about John Brown. Several novels have been written about John Brown, including: Banks, Russell. Cloudsplitter. New York: Harper & Collins, 1998.

Ehrlich, Leonard. God's Angry Man. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1934. Based on Villard's biography of Brown.

Ellison, Earl Jerome. John Brown's Soul, A Novel. New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, [1951].

McManus, Thomas J. L. The Boy and the Outlaw. New York: The Grafton press, [1904].

Bullock, Miles Wayne (1844-1914). Diaries 1862, 1864-1865. Soldier and resident of Sherburne, NY, and later of Marion, MI. Diaries describe Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV, and Sharpsburg, MD. Central Michigan University, Clarke Historical Library, Mount Pleasant, MI.

Chambers, Jennie. A local amateur artist and author. Her papers (1838-1936) are available at Duke University Library.

Chambers, Jennie. "What a School-Girl Saw of John Brown's Raid." Harper's Monthly Magazine, (January 1902), 104: 311-318. The author, then a young girl whose home was on Bolivar Heights, tells the conventional story. The chief value of the piece is in giving names of local people engaged in the defensive work.

Cooke, John Esten. Writer.

Beaty, John O. John Esten Cooke, Virginian. New York: Columbia university Press, 1922.

Cooke, Philip Pendleton. Writer.

Metcalf, John C. "Cooke, Philip Pendleton." Dictionary of American Biography, edited by Allen Johnson. New York: C. Scribner's Sons, 1928, 4: 399-389.

Craighill, William P. Soldier, Statesman

Houck, Peter W. Duty, Honor, Country: The Diary and Biography of General William P. Craighill. Lynchburg, VA: Warwick House Pub., c1993.

Curry, John Steuart. Artist. Curry created murals that incorporated John Brown. See:

Arnold, Oren. "The Farmer Takes a Brush." Who (New York), (October 1941).

[Curry, John Steuart]. "Curry of Kansas is Reviewed by Chicago." Art Digest (New York), (April 1, 1939), 21.

[Curry, John Steuart]. "John Curry. He Paints at Wisconsin as Artist-in-Residence." Life (New York), (December 29, 1939).

[Curry, John Steuart]. "Sons of Sunflower Strife: Curry's Murals of John Brown Create a Storm in Kansas." Newsweek (New York), (July 7, 1941), 18: 58.

[Curry, John Steuart]. "Murals, With Curry Sauce." Time (New York), (July 13, 1942).

[Curry, John Steuart]. "Speaking of Pictures ... Artists Number Themselves Among Their Favorite Models." Life (New York), (October 25, 1943).

Wear, Ted. "John Steuart Curry and His Kansas Murals." The American Artist (New York), 4 (October 1940), 4-8.

Dandridge, Caroline “Danske” Bedinger. Poet, historian, horticulturist Her literary works are listed earlier in this section. Many of her papers are available at the West Virginia Archives and Duke University Library. (See Chapter 2). Other repositories are listed in the Bibliography CD.

The following sources contain brief biographical sketches or reactions to her work:

Comstock, Jim. West Virginia Women. Richwood, WV: Jim Comstock, 1974pp. 19-20, 80-81.

Mullin, Sarah. “Immortal Essence,” Martinsburg Journal, (April 8, 2001), pp. E1, E3. At this writing, many of Dandridge’s writings are available at the following website (produced by Jim Surkamp): www.libraries.wvu.edu.dandridge/index2.htm
Davis, Julia. Writer.

Julia Davis wrote a trilogy of novels based in Jefferson County and using the McDonald family of Media as characters. The family saga of the fictional McLeods makes use of local source material she collected on the McDonalds, her mother’s family. Other local characters and incidents are woven into the narratives. In Cloud on the Land (1950), she used Media Farm in Jefferson County, West Virginia as background for an historical novel about Western settlement and slavery. The story was continued in Bridle the Wind (1951), which is set in Jefferson County Virginia in the 1830's. Eagle on the Sun (1956) continues the family saga during the Mexican War. Her most famous work of local nonfiction is The Shenandoah (New York: Farrar & Rinehart, Inc., 1945). See:

Tedford, Barbara Wilkie, "Confronting `The Other' in the fiction of Julia Davis," Bulletin of the West Virginia Association of College Teachers 11 (Fall 1989): 93-100.

Theriault, William D. "Julia Davis." In Harvest: Collected Works of Julia Davis. Charles Town, WV: Arts & Humanities Alliance of Jefferson County, 1992. (This work includes poetry, short stories, and a play that were previously unpublished.)

Delany, Martin. African America Leader.

"Delany, Martin." Dictionary of American Biography (Allen Johnson and Dumas Malone, eds.). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1928-1936, vol. 3, pp. 219-220.

Griffith, Cyril E. The African Dream; Martin R. Delany and the Emergence of Pan-African Thought. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1975.

Perry, Thornton T., Jr. "Martin R. Delany. Charles Town's Most Famous Negro." Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society (Sheperdstown, WV), 16 (1950): 41-45.

Rollin, Frank A. (Pseud. for Frances Whipper.) Life and Public Services of Martin R. Delany; Sub-Assistant Commissioner Bureau Relief of Refugees, Freedmen, and of Abandoned Lands, and Late Major 104th U.S. Colored Troops. Boston: Lee and Shepard, 1883.

Sterling, Dorothy. The Making of an Afro-American; Martin Robison Delany 1812 - 1855. New York: Doubleday and Co., 1971.

Ullman, Victor. Martin R. Delany: the Beginnings of Black Nationalism. Boston: Beacon Press, 1971.

Surkamp, James T. "Tape 15: Martin Robison Delany." Frederick, MD, GS Communications: 1998.

Includes: Martin Delany, segment 1 (3:18); Martin Delany, segment 2 (6:54); Martin Delany, segment 3

(3:12); Martin Delany, segment 4 (3:00); Martin Delany, segment 5 (5:10); and Martin Delany, segment 6 (5:10).

Douglas, Henry Kyd. I Rode with Stonewall, Being Chiefly the War Experiences of the Youngest Member of Jackson's Staff from the John Brown raid to the Hanging of Mrs. Surratt. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1940. Prepared in 1899 by Henry Kyd Douglas from his diaries and notes on the Civil War.

Engle, Jacob. Goldrush and Civil War diaries. These diaries, referenced in several 19th century publications, cannot be found. They may have been absorbed into the T.T. Perry collection of the Virginia Historical Society or retained by members of the Engle family. The brief passages available indicate that these diaries are important resources that should be located and published.

Foster, Sarah Jane (1839-1868). Taught black students in Jefferson County and Martinsburg after the Civil War. See:

Foster, Sarah Jane. Teacher of the Freedmen. A Diary and Letters. Edited by Wayne E. Reilly. With a Foreword by Jacqueline Jones. Charlottesville and London: University Press of Virginia, 1990.

Fairfax, Thomas Lord. Landowner.

Brown, Stuart E., Jr. Virginia Baron, the Story of Thomas, 6th Lord Fairfax. Berryville, VA: Chesapeake Book Co., 1965.

Faulkner, Charles J. Politician.

McVeigh, Donald. "Charles James Faulkner." Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, West Virginia University, 1954.

Wormsley, James E. "Faulkner, Charles J." Dictionary of American Biography. vol. 6, pp. 298-299.

Gallaher, D.C. Fragments of a Diary of Shepherdstown. Events During the Civil War. Contributed by D.C. Gallaher. Shepherdstown Register, April 23, 1925. This was edited by Cecil D. Eby and reprinted in the Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society, 62 (1996): 83-96.

Gates, Horatio. Soldier.

Adams, Randolph G. "Gates, Horatio." Dictionary of American Biography, edited by Allen Johnson. New York: C. Scribner's Sons, 1928, vol. 7, pp. 184-185.

Gates, Horatio. Papers, 1726-1828. Microfilm, 20 reels. Sanford, NC: Microfilming Corporation of America, 1979. Available at West Virginia Archives, the New York Historical Society (New York City), and the New York Public Library.

"General Horatio Gates." Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society, 30 (1964): 36.

Gregory, James, et al. (eds.). The Horatio Gates Papers, 1726-1828: A Guide to the Microfilm Edition. Sanford, NC: Microfilming Corp. of America.

[Griswold, Rufus Wilmot]. Washington and the Generals of the American Revolution. Philadelphia: Carey & Hart, 1848.

Nelson, Paul David. General Horatio Gates, a Biography. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1976.

Nelson, Paul David. "Lee, Gates, Stephen and Morgan: Revolutionary War Generals of the Lower Shenandoah Valley." West Virginia History, 37.3 (April 1976): 185-200.

Patterson, Samuel White. Horatio Gates, Defender of American Liberties. New York: Columbia University Press, 1941.

"Traveller's Rest (1830)." Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society, 22 (1956): 35-37.

"Travellers Rest." Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society, 30 (1964): 37.

Henderson, David E. Artist.

Hilleary, Esta. “David English Henderson.” A manuscript prepared for the Jefferson County Historical Society, March 29, 1940. Typescript in the Princeton University Library.

Hilleary, Esta Burton. "David English Henderson." Address presented to Jefferson County Historical Society, March 29, 1940.

Heth, William. Heth served as a Lieutenant with Capt. Daniel Morgan and his Virginia Riflemen on their journey from Winchester to Quebec. See:

Flickinger, B. Floyd. The Diary of Lieut. William Heth. Winchester, Virginia, Historical Society, 1931.

Hite, Jost. Early Settler.

Dictionary of American Biography, 5: 80.

Pecquet du Bellet, Louise. Some Prominent Virginia Families, 4 volumes. Lynchburg, VA: J. T. Bell, 1907.

Hoge, Moses. Minister.

Campbell, J. W. A History of Virginia from its Discovery till the Year 1781. With Biographical Sketches of All the Most Distinguished Characters That Occur in the Colonial, Revolutionary, or Subsequent Period of Our History.

Petersburg, VA: J. W. Campbell, 1813.

Foote, William Henry. Sketches of Virginia, Historical and Biographical. Philadelphia: W. S. Martien, 1850-1855.

Graham, James R. The Planting of the Presbyterian Church in Northern Virginia. Winchester, VA: George F. Norton Publishing Co., 1904.

Hoge, John Blair. Sketch of the Life & Character of the Rev. Moses Hoge, D.D., President of Hampden Sidney College and Professor of Divinity in the Theological Seminary of the Synod of Virginia. [Richmond]: Library, Union Theological Seminary in Virginia, 1964.

Hoge, Moses D. The Perfection of Beauty, and other sermons by the Rev. Moses D. Hoge. Richmond, VA: The Presbyterian Committee of Publication,"Moses Hoge." Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society, (1960), 26: 16.

Second Presbyterian Church. Richmond, VA. Commemoration of Forty-five Years of Service. [Richmond, VA]: Printed by Whittet & Shepperson, 1890.

Hovenden, Thomas. Artist. His painting, "Last Moments of John Brown, " was commissioned by Robbins Battel in 1882 and now hangs in the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art. It was completed in 1884.

Depicting John Brown stooping to kiss a black child on the way to the gallows, it is based on a newspaper account of John Brown's trial which appeared in the New York Tribune. Later it was revealed that the newspaper account was entirely fictional, but it is not known whether Hovenden and his patron knew that the newspaper account was not based on fact. The painting created considerable controversy when made public. A print of the painting was issued by Currier & Ives. Hovenden spend considerable time painting American blacks. See:

Malin, James C. "The John Brown Legend in Pictures. Kissing the Negro Baby." Kansas Historical Quarterly (Topeka), 7 (November 1939): 339-341.

Jex, Garnett. Artist. Most of Jex’s local paintings focused on Harpers Ferry. A collection of his paintings is housed at the Camp Hill Wesley United Methodist Church in Harpers Ferry, WV. Some of these works have been reproduced and are available for sale through Harpers Ferry National Historic Park bookstore.

Schley, Linnie. "Mr. Jex Presents Painting to the Society." Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society, 35 (1969): 22-26. Describes "Pack Horse Ford of the Potomac below Shepherdstown about 1850," presented to the Jefferson County Historical Society in 1969.

Kennedy, John Pendleton. Writer. Kennedy’s novel Swallow Barn probably was set at "The Bower," the Dandridge home on Opequon Creek in Jefferson County. See:

Gwathmey, Edward M. John Pendleton Kennedy. New York: Nelson, 1931.

Kennedy, John Pendleton (1795-1870). Papers. West Virginia Regional History Collection. Microfilm of John Pendleton Kennedy's papers, including a checklist of the Kennedy collection in the Peabody Institute Library, an alphabetical checklist of Kennedy's incoming correspondence, and selected materials on the Berkeley Springs - Martinsburg - Winchester area.

Lawrence, Jacob. (1917 - ) Artist. "The Legend of John Brown," 1977. Twenty-two screen prints depicting John Brown's career. An African-American artist, Lawrence has created numerous paintings depicting black historical figures and themes. According to Lawrence, "The inspiration to paint the ... John Brown series was motivated by historical events as told to us by the adults of our community ... the black community." See:

Bearden, Romare and Henderson, Harry. A History of African-American Artists: From 1792 to the Present. New York: Pantheon Books, 1992.

Dover, Cedric. American Negro Art. London: Studio Vista, 1960.

Driskell, David C. Two Centuries of Black American Art. Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1976.

Lawrence, Jacob. The Legend of John Brown. [Detroit]: Detroit Institute of Arts: [Distributed by Wayne State University Press], 1978. "Printed on the occasion of the exhibition Jacob Lawrence: John Brown series at the Detroit Institute of Arts, October 14-November 26, 1978." Includes 22 gouaches by J.

Lawrence and a poem by R. Hayden.

Lewis, Samella. African-American Art and Artists. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.

McElroy, Guy C. Facing History: The Black Image in American Art 1710-1940. San Francisco: Bedford Arts, Publishers/The Corcoran Gallery of Art, 1990.

Nesbett, Peter (ed.). Jacob Lawrence: Thirty Years of Prints (1963-1993): A Catalogue Rraisonné. Seattle: Francine Seders Gallery/University of Washington Press, 1994.

Porter, James A. Modern Negro Art. Washington (DC): Howard University Press, 1992.

Powell, Richard J. Black Art and Culture in the 20th century. London: Thames and Hudson, 1997.

Smith, Jessie Carney (ed.). Images of Blacks in American Culture: A Reference Guide to Information Sources. New York: Greenwood Press, 1988.

Turner, Elisabeth Hutton (ed.). Jacob Lawrence: The Migration Series. Washington, DC: Rappahannock/The Phillips Collection, 1993.

Wheat, Ellen Harkins. Jacob Lawrence: The Frederick Douglass and Harriet Tubman Series of 1938-40. Hampton (VA): Hampton University Museum/University of Washington Press, 1991.

Lee, Charles. General.

Adams, Randolph G. "Lee, Charles." Dictionary of American Biography, edited by Allen Johnson. New York: C. Scribner's Sons, 1928, vol. 11, pp. 98-101.

Alden, John Richard. General Charles Lee, Traitor or Patriot. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University, 1951.

"General Charles Lee." Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society, 30 (1964): 38.

Langworthy, Edward. The Life and Memoirs of the Late Major General Lee, Second in Command to General Washington, During the American Revolution, to Which Are Added, His Political and Military Essays. New York: Richard Scott, 1813. The first biography of any West Virginian written and published. [Griswold, Rufus Wilmot]. Washington and the Generals of the American Revolution. Philadelphia: Carey & Hart, 1848.

Lee, Charles. "Major Charles Lee's Will." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, 11 (1903-1904): 108-110.

Lee, Charles. Papers. In Publications of the New York Historical Society, New York: 1871 to 1874, vols. 4-7,

Moore, George H. "Mr. Lee's Plan – March 29, 1777." The Treason of Charles Lee, Major General, Second in Command in the American Army of Revolution. New York: C. Scribners, 1860.

Nelson, Paul David. "Lee, Gates, Stephen and Morgan: Revolutionary War Generals of the Lower Shenandoah Valley." West Virginia History, 37.3 (April 1976): 185-200.

Pecquet du Bellet, Louise. Some Prominent Virginia Families, 4 volumes. Lynchburg, VA: J. T. Bell, 1907. Lucas, Robert (1781-1853). Politician. A Jefferson County resident who became Governor of Ohio.

Hall, Betty Porter. Governor Robert Lucas: His Ancestors and Descendants. LaVerne, CA, 1989.

Parish, John Carl. Robert Lucas. Iowa City: The State Historical Society of Iowa, 1907. [Stark, Caleb]. Biography of Gov. Robert Lucas. Columbus, 1908.

McQuilkin-Kregloe, Mary Catherine Kearney (1843-1929). Autobiography. Excerpts from her 1925 autobiography are reprinted as "A Civil War Episode" in the Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society, 26 (1960): 20. She was the daughter of Josiah Thornburg Kearney and granddaughter of Sarah Shepherd Thornburg Kearney.

Miller, E. Hutchinson. (1831-1921) Artist. Born in Shepherdstown. Miller’s watercolor, entitled "Moonrise and Twilight," is in the Corcoran Art Gallery in Washington, DC. It was painted from the Potomac River Bridge at Shepherdstown. Brief biographical sketches are included on Bushong's History of Jefferson County and Kenamond's Prominent Men of Shepherdstown. See:

Trotter, Jessie. "E. Hutchinson Miller, The Artist." Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society, 5 (1939): 38-40.

Millman, Edward and Mitchell Siporin. Artists. John Brown Mural. See:

"Missouri. New Murals Show Its History." Life (New York), (October 12, 1942), pp. 70-80. A four-page reproduction in color of the murals depicting Missouri history, painted by Edward Millman and Mitchell Siporin, placed on the walls of the post office in St. Louis. John Brown is shown in one panel, firebrand in his hand, surrounded by his armed men and with a Negro at his feet.

Mooney, John. Artist. Surprise Attack Near Harpers Ferry (painting). Painting of John Brown's attack on Harpers Ferry was featured in "The Winter Art Show," American Heritage, ?

Morgan, Daniel. Soldier.

Higginbotham, Don. Daniel Morgan: Revolutionary Rifleman. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1961.

"Sidelights on the Life of General Daniel Morgan." Shepherdstown Register, (November 27, 19240, p. 2. Morgan, Morgan. Early Settler.

Haskett, Daniel C. "Morgan, Morgan." Dictionary of American Biography, edited by Allen Johnson. New York: C. Scribner's Sons, 1928, vol. 13, pp. 166-167.

Ransom, Lewis. Artist. John Brown. Meeting the Slave-Mother and Her Child on the Steps of Charlestown Jail on His Way to Execution. According to Boyd Stutler: “Issued in the North during the Civil War, the melodramatic portrayal of an apocryphal incident from the life of John Brown must have had unmistakable propagandistic overtones. Brown became for many Northerners a martyr of the abolitionist cause. The artist shows Brown calmly descending the steps of the Charles Town jail, hands tied behind his back. "Regarding with a look of compassion a Slave-mother and Child who obstructed the passage on his way to the Scaffold. – Capt. Brown stooped and kissed the Child – then met his fate." The strikingly madonna-like slave woman is seated on a stone railing, holding an equally Christ-like infant. One of Brown's guards reaches forward, about to push her away. In the foreground a mustachioed and elegantly uniformed soldier waits impatiently, hand on his sword hilt. Behind Brown a figure from the American Revolution, wearing a tricornered hat emblazoned "76," watches with concern. The flag of the state of Virginia with the motto "Sic semper tyrannis" flies prominently above Brown's head. A statue of Justice, with its arms and scales broken, stands forgotten behind the railing at left. Currier & Ives issued another version of the print, minus the clearly sectionalist references, in 1870.” See:

Fletcher, Robert S. "Ransom's John Brown Painting." Kansas Historical Quarterly (Topeka), 9 (November 1940): 343-346.

Malin, James C. "The John Brown Legend in Pictures." Kansas Historical Quarterly (Topeka), 9 (November 1940): 339-342.

Malin, James C. "The John Brown Legend in Pictures. Kissing the Negro Baby." Kansas Historical Quarterly (Topeka), 7 (November 1939): 339-341

Rivera, Diego. Artist. A muralist who incorporated John Brown into several of his works. See the numerous publications on the artist and his work.

"Diego Rivera. His Amazing New Mural Depicts Pan-American Unity." Life (New York), (March 3, 1941), pp. 52-56.

Flores, A. Sanches. "The Technique of Fresco." Architectural Forum (New York), (January 1934). A study of the mural work of Diego Rivera by his technical assistant. Two Rivera murals from the series in the New Workers School, New York, in which John Brown appears, are reproduced.

Rouss, Charles Broadway. Philanthropist. Donated Rouss Hall in Charles Town.

Mullin, Larry A. The Napoleon of Gotham: A Study of the Life of Charles Broadway Rouss. Winchester, VA: Farmers and Merchants National Bank, 1974.

Rumsey, James. Inventor.

Andrews, Matthew Page. "James Rumsey 'Ingenious Mechanic' and International Genius." West Virginia History, 1.1 (October 1939): 3-14.

Beltzhoover, George M., Jr. James Rumsey, the Inventor of the Steamboat. Charleston: The West Virginia Historical and Antiquarian Society's Publication, (1955), 17-20.

"For the James Rumsey Monument." Shepherdstown Register, (March 1, 1906), p. 2.

"Heirs of James Rumsey." 27th Congress, 2nd Session, House Report No. 324, March 8, 1842, Serial Set 408: 10-12.

Hindle, Brooke. "James Rumsey and the Rise of Steamboating in the United States." West Virginia History, 48 (1989): 33-42.

"James Rumsey Bridge Dedicated and opened – Huge Crowds Here." Shepherdstown Register, (July 20, 19390, p. 1.

"JAS. RUMSEY OF CECIL COUNTY, MARYLAND, Inventor of Steam Boat Navigation," Virginia Free Press, October 22, 1835.

Johnson, James. "Jas. Rumsey of Cecil County, Maryland, Inventor of Steam Boat Navigation." Virginia Free Press, October 22, 1835,

Kemp, Emory. "James Rumsey and His Role in the Improvements Method." West Virginia History, 48 (1989): 1-6.

Kenamond, A.D. "James Rumsey and His Steamboat." Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society, 3 (1937): 4-11.

Layton, Edwin T., Jr. "James Rumsey: Pioneer Technologist." West Virginia History, 48 (1989): 7-32.

"Letters of James Rumsey." William and Mary Quarterly, 24.3 (January 1916): 154-174.

McDonald, Henry T. "James Rumsey." Spirit of Jefferson, (January 1947), pp. 189-198.

Mosier, Jeanne. "James Rumsey, the Man and His Life." Unpublished MS, 1986.

Nelson, Charles Shannon. "James Rumsey Bridge, A Friendship Span." Shepherdstown Register (July 27, 1939), p. 3.

Official Dedicatory Program. The James Rumsey Bridge. July 15, 1939. Sharpsburg, MD: 1939.

“Replica of James Rumsey Boat.” Shepherdstown Register (July 27, 1939), p. 3.

Rumsey, James. Application of Steam and Water Power to Mills and Machinery. British Patent no. 1825, October 24, 1791.

Rumsey, James. Applying Water and Steam Power to Machinery, to the Propulsion of Vessels, etc. British Patent no. 1738, May 22, 1790.

Rumsey, James. Construction boilers for Distillation and for Other Objects, also for Steam-Engines. British Patent no. 1673, November 6, 1788.

Rumsey, James. The Explanation and Annexed Plates of the Following Improvements in Mechanics. Philadelphia, 1788.

Rumsey, James. "Letters of James Rumsey." William and Mary Quarterly, (January. April, and July 1916): 24.3. 24.4, and 25.1: 154-174, 239-251; and 21-34.

Rumsey, James. Obtaining and Applying Water Power. British Patent no. 1792, August 23, 1792.

Rumsey, James. A Plan Wherein the Power of Steam is Fully Shewn. Berkeley County, Virginia, 1788.

Snyder, Rachel. "The James Rumsey Memorial in London." Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society, 21 (1955): 4-9.

Turner, Ella May. James Rumsey, Pioneer in Steam Navigation. Scottsdale, PA, 1930. Virginia. General Assembly. An Act in Behalf of James Rumsey. Hening, Statutes at Large, 11: 502.

Waesche, Russell Randolph. "Dedicatory Address at Opening of The James Rumsey Bridge." Address presented to the Jefferson County Historical Society, July 1, 1939.

Sanborn, Franklin B. Writer, Abolitionist, Autobiographer. Sanborn was one of the “Secret Six” who supported John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry. His works describe his relationship with John Brown and his abolitionist activities. Works by and about Sanborn are presented in the Bibliography. See:

Sanborn, Franklin B. Recollections of Seventy Years. Boston: Richard G. Badger, 1909.

Shepherd, Rezin D. Shakespearean Actor.

Peyrouse, Jack. "Rezin Davis Shepherd, III (R. D. MacLean): He Loved Shakespeare as His Life." Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society, 52 (1991): 16-30.

Sonntag, William L. (1822-1900). Landscape artist. Sonntag spent nearly 2 months in Harpers Ferry, the upper Potomac, Piedmont grade, and Cheat River vicinities about 1859. See:

Moure, Nancy Dustin Wall. William Louis Sonntag, Artist of the Ideal, 1822-1900. Los Angeles: Goldfield Galleries, 1980.

Southworth, E.D.E.N. Popular female novelist of the mid-19th century. Vacationed in Jefferson County and wrote her novel Shannondale while staying at that resort. See:

Southworth, Emma D.E.N. Shannondale. New York: D. Appleton & Company, 1851.

"Southworth, Emma (Dorothy Eliza Nevitte). National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, vol. 1, p. 432.

Strother, David Hunter, "Porte Crayon" (1818-1888). Artist and writer. Strother published a substantial amount of material about Jefferson County, including drawings and articles about John Brown’s Raid on Harpers Ferry. Sources include:
Comstock, Jim (ed.) Porte Crayon Sampler. Richwood, WV: Privately Printer, 1974.

Costello, Helen. The Life and Works of David Hunter Strother, Porte Crayon., M. A. Thesis, St. John's University, Brooklyn, New York, 1956.

Cuthbert, John A. and Jessie Poesch. David Hunter Strother: "One of the Best Draughtsmen the Country Possesses." Morgantown: West Virginia University Press, 1997. A biography of Strother and a catalog to the traveling exhibit of 42 of his drawings.

Eby, Cecil D., Jr. "A Critical Biography of David Hunter Strother, 'Porte Crayon' " University of Pennsylvania, 1958.

Eby, Cecil D., Jr. "Porte Crayon in the Tidewater." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, 67 (April 1959): 151-162.

Eby, Cecil D., Jr. "Porte Crayon's Quarrel with Virginia." West Virginia History, (1959), 438-444.

Eby, Cecil D., Jr. "Porte Crayon": The Life of David Hunter Strother. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1960.

Eby, Cecil D., Jr. "A West Virginian in Europe: The Apprenticeship of Porte Crayon." West Virginia History, (April 1959): 65-75.

"Porte Crayon Discovers New England," West Virginia Hillbilly, July 15, 1972.

"Porte Crayon Discovers New Englanders are Just Like People," West Virginia Hillbilly, July 8, 1972.

"Porte Crayon Rides B & O in the Hills," West Virginia Hillbilly, October 3, 1971.

"Porte Crayon's Summer in New England," West Virginia Hillbilly, July 15, 1972.

Preble, Jack. "Old Glory on Mt. Porte Crayon." West Virginia History, 31.2 (January 1970): 133-137.

Smith, Fred M. "Strother, David Hunter." Dictionary of American Biography, edited by Allen Johnson. New York: C. Scribner's Sons, 1928, vol. 18, pp. 156-157.

Stutler, Boyd B. "An Eye-Witness Describes the Hanging of John Brown." American Heritage (New York), 6.2 (February 1955): 4-9.

See the Bibliography for Strother's works and other studies.

Taylor, James E. Artist, writer. An artist for Leslie’s Magazine, Taylor sketched much of the Shenandoah Valley when he traveled with Sheridan and the Union Army during the Civil War. See:

Taylor, James E. With Sheridan up The Shenandoah Valley in 1864. Cleveland: Western Reserve Historical Society, 1989.

Willis, Patty. Arist. See:

Graeff, Virginia." "The Exhibition of Miss Patty Willis," Farmer's Advocate, April 26, 1930.

Wilson, William L. Lawyer. Educator. Politician.

Summers, Festus P. (ed.) A Borderland Confederate. Pittsburg: University of Pittsburg Press, 1962. In addition to printing Wilson’s diary, Summers includes a letter from Wilson reacting to the news of John Brown’s trial and information about the casket for Turner Ashby that was provided by the women of Jefferson County.

Summers, Festus P. William L. Wilson and Tariff Reform, a Biography. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1953. A detailed biography of William L. Wilson. Includes an extensive bibliography that contains sources on rural free delivery, biographical sketches of Wilson, and his activities while Postmaster General.

Worthington, Thomas. Governor of Ohio. Worthington’s account includes his early life in Jefferson County. See:

Cole, T. W. Thomas Worthington. Columbus, OH, 1903.

Sears, Alfred Byron. Thomas Worthington, Father of Ohio Statehood. Columbus, OH: State University Press for the Ohio Historical Society [1958].

"Worthington, Thomas." Dictionary of American Biography (Allen Johnson and Dumas Malone, eds.). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1928-1936, vol. 10, pp. 540-541.

Biographical Sketches of Jefferson County Residents

The following works include additional biographical information about Jefferson County residents.

Aler, Vernon, F. History of Martinsburg and Berkley County. Hagerstown, MD: Mail Pub. Co., 1888. The biographical sketches include: "Horatio Gates," by Dr. Richard McSherry, John Myers, Charles D. Stewart, Raleigh Colston, Daniel Bedinger, Abraham Shepherd, Philip Nadenbousch, Levi Henshaw, Joel War, Rev. Bernard C. Wolff, Col. David Hunter, Major General Thomas Sidney Jessup, Robert Cockburn, Jr., Magnus Tate, John Boyd, William Smith, Henry Clay, Martin Van Buren, Fisher Ames,
William H. Crawford, Thomas Davis, M.D., John S. Gallaher, Felix Grundy, Michael Rooney, George Porterfield, Maria Cooper, James Stephenson, John Miller, William Creighton, John Kerney, Nathaniel Willis, William Arburtis, James R. Stephenson, Major Andrew Waggoner, Jr., Charles Roberts, Rev. William Hill, D.D., Thomas Worthington, Thomas Van Swearingen, William Mackey, Col. William Crawford, Col. Hugh Stephenson, John Strother, Adam Stephen, Edward Colston, James Faulker, Maj.
Henry Bedinger, Alexander White, Robert Rutherford, General Daniel Morgan, David Holmes, Gen. Elisha Boyd, and John Baker.
Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, ed. James G. Wilson and John Fiske. New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1888. Includes biographies of John Brown (vol. 1, pp. 404-407) and John Minor Botts (vol. 1, pp. 325-26).

Atkinson, George W., and Alvaro Gibbens. Prominent Men of West Virginia. Wheeling, WV: W.L. Callin, 1890. Biographical sketches of the following are provided: George Morris Beltzhoover, Frank Beckwith, Charles J. Faulkner, Sr. (with illustration), Emanuel Willis Wilson (with illustration), Charles J.

Faulkner, Jr. (with illustration), Roger Preston Chew, Col. George A. Porterfield (with illustration), Daniel Bedinger Lucas (with illustration), Braxton Davenport Gibson, William Lyne Wilson, David Hunter Strother (with illustration), Gustav Brown (with illustration), and Charles Henry Knott (with illustration).

Biographical and Historical Catalogue of Washington and Jefferson College, 1802-1902. Philadelphia: George Buchanan & Co., 1902. Includes graudates from Jefferson County.

Biographical Dictionary of America, ed. Rossiter Johnson. Boston: American Biographical Society, 1906.] [Blanchard, Amos]. The American Biography; Containing Biographical Sketches of the Officers of the Revolution and of the Principal Statesmen of that Period. Wheeling: F. Kenyon, 1833.

Bushong, Millard K. Historic Jefferson County. Carr Publishing Co., Boyce, Virginia, 1972. Includes biographical sketches on George Baylor, John Yates Beall, Henry Bedinger, Alexander R. Boteler, Henry St. George Tucker Brooke, Roger Preston Chew, John Strider Coleman, William P. Craighill, William Crawford, Wilfred E. Cutshaw, Danske Dandridge, William Darke, Henry Kyd Douglas, Raymond J. Funkhouser, Horatio Gates, John T. Gibson, Thomas C. Green, Walter Gwynn, Henry Hagan, John F.
Hamtramck, Wells J. Hawks, James L. Hooff, Abner C. Hopkins, David Humphreys, Andrew H. Hunter, George W. Johnson, A.D. Kenamond, Ward H. Lamon, Charles Lee, Edwin G. Lee, Daniel Bedinger Lucas, Edward Lucas, John Porter Lucas, Edward Allen Hitchcock McDonald, Eleazer H. Miller, William A. Morgan, Harold G. Moulton, George A. Porterfield, John Quick, John Reynolds,
Robert Rutherford, Adam Stephen, Hugh Stephenson, James Stephenson, Oscar C. Stine, Thomas M. Stokes, Robert E. Lee Strider, Edward Tiffin, Ella May Turner, Charles Washington, John Augustine Washington, John Thornton Augustine Washington, Samuel Washington, Charles M. Wetzel, Charles W. Willis, E. Willis Wilson, William L. Wilson, and Thomas Worthington. Conley, Phil. West Virginia Encyclopedia. Charleston, W. Va.: West Virginia Publishing Co., 1929.

Dictionary of National Biography.

Encyclopedia of Contemporary Biography of West Virginia. Including Reference Articles on the Industrial Resources of the State. New York: Atlantic Publishing and Engraving Co., 1894. Includes biographical sketches of Charles J. Faulkner, Sr. (with illustration), Charles J. Faulkner, Jr., Daniel Bedinger Lucas (with illustration), E. Willis Wilson (with illustration), and William L. Wilson.

Evans, Willis F. History of Berkeley County, West Virginia. Wheeling: Privately Printed, 1928. A section on "Biography" contains many persons who played a role in pre-Jefferson County and later: Charles James Faulkner, David Hunter Strother, Morgan Morgan, W. E. Minghini, D.D.S., Charles William Link, "The Vanmetre Line," Dr. J. Whann McSherry, Col. Hugh Stephenson, John Strother, Capt. William B. Colston, C.S.A., John Baker, Richard McSherry, M.D., Moses T. Hunter, General Daniel
Morgan, Robert Rutherford, Major Henry Bedinger, C.S.A., Adam Stephen, Thomas Maslin, Daniel Bedinger, Captain Abraham Shepherd, Colonel William Crawford, Thomas Worthington, Thomas Van Swearingen, Colonel David Hunter, Magnus Tate, John S. Gallaher, Captain John Kerney, James Stephenson, Nathaniel Willis, Mabel Henshaw Gardiner, Betty Dandridge, and J. R. Clifford.

Foote, William Henry. Sketches of Virginia, Historical and Biographical. Philadelphia: W. S. Martien, 1850-1855.

Kenamond, A.D. Prominent Men of Shepherdstown, 1762-1962. Jefferson County Historical Society, 1963. Includes Biographical sketches on Thomas Shepherd, Col. John James Albert, Charles W. Andrews, Elias Baker, John Baker, Dr. G. W. Banks, Henry Bedinger (1729-1772), Major Henry Bedinger (1753- 1834), Henry Bedinger (1812-1858), George M. Beltzhoover, Sr., Henry Berry, David Billmyer, Alexander R. Boteler, Robert Cockburn, Henry Cookus, Jacob Craft, Philip Adam Entler, E. Lee Goldsborough, Major Henry Hagan, Dr. Thomas Hammond, Col. J. F. Hamtramck, Charles Harper,
George T. Hodges, Moses Hoge, Thomas Hopkins, John Kearsley, Edmund Jennings Lee, II, Willoughby Newton Lemen, John Mark, Joseph McMurran, Eleazer Hutchinson Miller, John Morrow, Henry W. Potts, Dr. John Reynolds, Michael Rickard, William Rightstine, James Rumsey, Dr. Nicholas Schell, Conrad Schindler, Philip Sheetz, Abraham Shepherd, Rezin D. Shepherd, Harry L. Snyder, Thomas Van Swearingen, Dr. Alexander Tinsley, George Weis, Joseph Welshans, Michael Yeasley, and
John H. Zittle.

Logan, Rayford W., and Michael R. Winston. Dictionary of American Negro Biography. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1982.

Malone, Dumas, ed. Dictionary of American Biography. 20 vols. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1928-1936. Articles on: Alexander R. Botel;er, vol. 1, pp. 467-468; Thomas Worthington, vol. 10, pp. 540-541; Martin Delany, vol. 3, pp. 219-220; John Minor Botts, vol. 1, pp. 472-73; Charles Tyler Botts, vol. 1, p. 472; Charles Faulkner, vol. 6, pp. 298-299; Jost Hite, vol. 5, pp. 80-81; Daniel Morgan, vol. 13, pp. 166-167; Philip Pendleton Cooke, vol. 4, pp. 388-389; David Hunter Strother, vol. 18, pp. 156-157; Horatio Gates, vol. 7, pp. 184-188; and Charles Lee, vol. 11, pp. 98-101.

National Encyclopedia of American Biography (New York: James T. White & Co., 1898 - 1907). Includes a biographical sketch of E.D.E.N. Southworth, a mid-19th century novelist who wrote Shannondale.

Norris, J. E. History of the Lower Shenandoah Valley. Chicago: Warner and Company, 1890. Biographical sketches include both Virginia and West Virginia portions of the Shenandoah Valley. Although many of the sketches do not deal with Jefferson County, they provide information about influential people of the time. The biographical sketches include:

Alexander R. Boteler, William Mayo Atkinson, Judge Robert White and Family, Page Family, The Conrad Family, Holmes Family, Mrs. M. A. Butterfield, Ex-Gov. Frederick W. M. Holliday, John A. Washington, The Barton Family, Hunter Family, The Boyd Family, Hon. E. Boyd Faulkner, Hon. Charles J. Faulkner, Henry B. Davenport, Pendleton Family, Charles S. Lee, Marquis Calmes, James Cather, Mahlon Gore, Daniel Bedinger Lucas, Philip Williams, The Porterfield Family, Edgar Allen, James Cather, James Henry Burton, Green Family, The Parkers of the Northern Neck of Virginia, William Page Carter, The McGuire Family, Gen. J. G. Walker, The Baker Family, The Funsten Family. William Arthur Carter, William Hodgson, Mc Cormick Family, Dr. Robert H. Renshaw, John Thomas Gibson, The Baylor Family, Andrew W. Hunter, Thomas W. Timberlake, James F. Kerfoot, D.C. Westenhaver. The Colston Family, E.T. Hancock, Henry Shepherd, Edward C. Jolliffe, Mrs. M. Catherine Wright, Thomas Walter Harrison, The Russell Family, Henry S, Slagle, Douglas-Fuller Family, Col. William R. Denny, Nathaniel Burwell, Matthew W. Jones, Rev. Julian Broaddus, The Rev. P. P. Phillips, The Moore Family, A. Moore, Jr., Daniel C. Snyder, La Rue Family, Col. R. P. Chew, Griggs-Timberlake, Kinnerly Family, Dr. E. D. Cherry, I. S. Tanner, Miss Sarah E. Carter, William Riely, F. A. Graichen,
Capt. Geo. W. Kurtz, The Smiths of "Shooters Hill", Gen. John Smith, Col. Augustine C. Smith, Prof. A. Magill Smith, Isaac H. Faulkner, Sr., Glaize Family, Cartmell Family, Randolph K. Ogden, Richard De Grotte Hardesty, William N. Nelson, Charles W. Coontz, Maj. Alexander Baker, W. H. Travers; A. Jackson Bageant; James V. Weir; Capt. A, M, Earle; John F. Sowers; John Whelan; Luke; Charles O. Lambert; The Wever Family; The Lemen Family; Rear Admiral Charles Boarman; W. H. H. Flick; Capt. E,g. Arburtis; Dr. E. B. Hamill; James Cadwallader; P. Senseney Wright. William A. Davis, M.D.; Joseph A. Miller; Ambrose Timberlake; Dr. G. W. Larrick; Dr. Thomas M. Miller; John W. Wright; Dr. John S. Guyer; H. R. Hack; The Van Meters; Dr. M. Steck; John Newton Trussell; Rev. Edward F. Heterick; Rebecca T. Baldwin and Rachael A. Wright, John W. Glaize, John W. Rice, Dr. R. W. Stone, Lewis P. Hartman, Rev. Lewis G. M. Miller, Maurice M. Lynch, William R. Alexander, Henry Kinzel, Col. W. W. Glass, John H. Dean, Dr. John Whitall Owen, Tabb Family, Forrest W. Brown, Charles McCormick Castleman, Charles Broadway Rouss, John L. Thompson, The McSherry Family., Joseph T. Griffith, John R. Nunn, G.W. Levi, John T. Reily, Thomas D. Gold, J. E. Barnett, Thomas Cover, Maj. Daniel E. Wotring, John T. Wotring, J. R. C. Lewis, E. C. Williams, Sr., Squire Hackett Martin, J. A. Cox, Dr. Peter Ridings, C. W. Doll, James B. Streit, George F. Evans, Theodore von Ringharz, J. Y. Smellie, James Jackson, Dr. S. M. Stickley, Kremer Family, Dr. Samuel Mc Cune, S. H. Petrie, Dr, Isaac Milton Brumback, Solomon Heater.
Lafayette Jackson, James D. Fayman, Lee H. Moler, J. H. Rutherford, M. H. G. Willis, Wilson P. Brown, Dr. W. S. Love, Jane Hott, David F. Hott, C. M. Gibbens, Dr. Clinton Maynard, William F, Hutchinson, Dr. Edgar B. Smoke, John M. Miller, William H. Myers, Capt. J. C. Van Fossen, William Newton Eddy, Daniel Janney, W. L. Evans, U. S. Grant Pitzer, David W. Branson, John
Diffenderfer, George Glass, Lupton Family, Charles H. Miller, William Vanmeter Green, George W. Wynkoop, Willis H. Hollis, Mrs. William A. Castleman, N. J. Morgan, John M. Coyle, James T. Mc Elwee, Edward Jacquelin Smith, Robert Bruce Muse, William Phillips & Sons, William F. Braithwaite, William Washington Adams, Washington Dearmont, Thomas S. Chamblin, Jacob
Warden, John William Lupton, John M. Silver, J. K. Mc Cann, Jacob B. Larrick, Nimrod Whitacre, Rev. T. J. Murray, James W. Thomas, Philip J. Affleck, Aaron Duble, Michael Crow, Christian W. Singhass, George W. Gordon, William B. Claggett, G. Washington Pifer, John W. Pifer, John W. Ramey, B. F. Kerns. P. M., William J. Good, Jonathan Jenkins, Sidney Chivers, J. W. Marks, Louis Scheuer, Craven Coe, Martin M. Adams, Harrison P. Whitacre, Jonathan Jackson, Jarvis Jennings, Henry Wilen, Mason P. Smith, Harvey A. Richard, Anthony M. Kline, David J. Miller, Daniel Baker, George A. Grove, Lemuel Painter, Adam Barley, M. A. Wise, Lewis White Hale, John Huber, Andrew J. Thomas, G. Lewis Dull, Stickley Family, Arthur N. Bragg, Henry Cooper, John Thomas Ogden, B. C. Shull, Edward H. Jones, Nimrod Kern, Festus Hahn, Abraham Polhamus, Amos Pierce, A. B. Richards, M. E. Baylis, E. Fawcett, Robert Barr, John C. Coe, William Jobe, John W. Mc Kown, James T. Clevenger, George T. Stottlemyer, Charles L. Wood, William M. Jefferson, William Mc Cormack, John Mc Cormack, Ottiwell Wood, Charles B. Spengler, William Lodge, John D. Adams, John W. Bailey, John N. Rees, H. C. Clayton, Josiah Fries, Josiah Robinson, Joel Babbitt, John Purcell, John L. Bond, Edwin S. Baker, Andrew B. Hauck, William R. Yeackley, Mrs. Elizabeth Mulvehill. M. H. Albin, Martin F. Yeackley, F. H. Wissler, German Smith, Robert Steele, Oscar Barr, Charles E. Hoover, Samuel L. Lerew, Dr. J. B. Wortham, Henry Baetjer, H. Anderson, Frederick W. Kohlhousen, H. Clay Krebs, James C. Pugh, Joseph Robinson, Isaac N. Pangle, Adams & McCarthy, Clark Maxwell, Lycurgus E. Savage, B. James Fergusson, A. S. Pratt, Douglas Lockwood, M. J. Stayman, Matthias Miller, H. Deahl, John H. Buncutter, John Wilson, Haldeman & Brother, Henry Stephenson, R. R. Brown, C. J. Jacobs, Charles W. Anderson, Col. Charles Mynn Thruston, Col. Charles Magill, Newton Swatrz. Perman, Robert (ed.). West Virginians; A Work of Biography. [Wheeling?]: West Virginia Biographical Association, 1928.

Stutler, Boyd B. "Jefferson County – Cradle of West Virginia Literature." Spirit of Jefferson (April 15, 1931), 27-38. Includes information on John Lederer, James Rumsey, Nathaniel Willis, and Charles Lee.

Tyler, Lyon Gardiner. Encyclopedia of Virginia Biography. 5 vols. New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Company, 1915. Includes biographical sketches of Charles J. Faulkner, Sr. (with illustration), Charles J. Faulkner, Jr., Daniel Bedinger Lucas (with illustration), E. Willis Wilson (with illustration), and William L. Wilson.

Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. (Index available.) Contains numerous references to Jefferson County. See the Bibliography for specific entries.

NEXT: 20. African American Studies

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